Analysis of Pyramidal Horn Antennas Using Moment Methods

Kefeng Liu, Constantine Balanis, Craig R. Birtcher, George C. Barber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


A hybrid numerical technique is developed for electrically large pyramidal horn antennas radiating in free space. A stepped-waveguide method is used to analyze the interior surfaces of the horn transition. The electric field integral equation (EFIE) is employed on the outer surfaces of the pyramidal horn including the radiating aperture. Meanwhile, the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) is used on the aperture to relate the aperture fields and those in the horn transition. The resultant hybrid field integral equation (HFIE) is solved numerically by the method of moments. This formulation is both accurate and numerically stable so that high-gain microwave pyramidal horns can be analyzed rigorously. Far-field radiation patterns, both computed and measured, are presented for three electrically-large X-band horn antennas. The comparisons demonstrate that this method is accurate enough to predict the fine pattern structure at wide angles and in the back region. Computed far-field patterns and aperture field distributions of two smaller X-band horns are also presented along with a discussion on the validity of the approximate aperture field distributions routinely used in the analysis and design of pyramidal horns.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1379-1389
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1993

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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