Sequential Monte Carlo particle filters (PFs) are useful for estimating nonlinear non-Gaussian dynamic system parameters. As these algorithms are recursive, their real-time implementation can be computationally complex. In this paper, we analyze the bottlenecks in existing parallel PF algorithms, and propose a new approach that integrates parallel PFs with independent Metropolis-Hastings (PPF-IMH) resampling algorithms to improve root mean-squared esti-mation error (RMSE) performance. We implement the new PPF-IMH algorithm on a Xilinx Virtex-5 field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform. For a one-dimensional problem with 1,000 particles, the PPF-IMH architecture with four processing elements uses less than 5% of a Virtex-5 FPGA's resource and takes 5.85 μs for one iteration. We also incorporate waveform-agile tracking techniques into the PPF-IMH algorithm. We demonstrate a significant performance improvement when the waveform is adaptively designed at each time step with 6.84 μs FPGA processing time per iteration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)211-227
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Signal Processing Systems
Issue number2
StatePublished - Nov 2011


  • Field programmable gate array
  • Parallel architecture
  • Particle filter
  • Target tracking
  • Waveform-agile sensing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Signal Processing
  • Information Systems
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Hardware and Architecture


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