Addressing a New Class of Reliability Threats in 3-D Network-on-Chips

Ebadollah Taheri, Mihailo Isakov, Ahmad Patooghy, Michel A. Kinsy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Network-on-chips (NoCs) are vulnerable to transient and permanent faults caused by thermal violations, aging effects, component wear out, or even transient fault sources. Although some of these faults are addressed by previous research, we show that there are reliability threats in 3-D NoCs that go beyond the reliability issues investigated in 2-D interconnect networks. First, we highlight one such class of reliability threats and discuss their manifestations in 3-D NoCs. Second, we propose a thermal, reliability, and performance-aware routing algorithm to tackle: 1) previously established fault models and 2) the new highlighted class of reliability threats in partially connected 3-D NoCs. The proposed routing algorithm takes into account the states of routers and both the horizontal and through silicon via (TSV) links, along with the temperatures of routers and cores. It then routes the packets around failed or overheated links and routers, achieving lower latencies by avoiding misrouting. To achieve this, the proposed routing algorithm uses the concept of vertical link announcement to inform nodes in the network of the working condition of vertical links. We evaluate the proposed routing algorithm under a wide range of working conditions using the access Noxim NoC simulator. Results show that the proposed routing algorithm: 1) is able to tolerate almost any number and pattern of vertical link failures; 2) is reliable against the newly identified reliability threats; and 3) improves the latency and temperature distribution of the network compared to previously proposed routing algorithms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8718253
Pages (from-to)1358-1371
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • 3-D integrated circuit
  • network-on-chip (NoC)
  • reliability
  • router architecture
  • virtual channel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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