Adaptive literacy instruction in iStart and W-Pal: implementing the inner and outer loop

Amy M. Johnson, Cecile A. Perret, Micah Watanabe, Kristopher J. Kopp, Kathryn S. McCarthy, Danielle S. McNamara

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Scopus citations


Though the affordances of intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) are particularly useful for literacy instruction, developing accurate automated feedback in reading and writing present challenges for developers. This chapter outlines some of these challenges in the context of providing both inner-loop and outer-loop feedback (VanLehn, 2006) and describes how we have addressed these challenges in our systems, iSTART and W-Pal. We report on the theoretical and practical development of student and instructional models that are sensitive to students' evolving literacy skills. The chapter offers an explanation of how we posit the implementation of outer-loop adaptivity can enhance learning of literacy skills in ITSs more broadly.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationTutoring and Intelligent Tutoring Systems
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages28
ISBN (Electronic)9781536140866
ISBN (Print)9781536140859
StatePublished - Aug 28 2018


  • Ill-defined domains
  • Inner and outer loop adaptivity
  • Literacy instruction
  • Natural language processing
  • Pedagogical design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Social Sciences


Dive into the research topics of 'Adaptive literacy instruction in iStart and W-Pal: implementing the inner and outer loop'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this