A Simple and Rapid Method of Forming Double-Sided TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

Christian L. Conrad, Welman C. Elias, Sergi Garcia-Segura, Michael A. Reynolds, Michael S. Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Highly ordered TiO2 nanostructures, known as nanotube arrays (NTAs), exhibit potential in various energy, chemical sensing, and biomedical applications. Owing to its simplicity and high degree of control, titanium anodization serves as the prevailing NTA synthesis method. However, the practicality of this approach is marred by sluggish and inconsistent growth rates, on the order of 10 nm min−1. Growth rates strongly depend on the electrolyte conductivity, yet most reports neglect to consider this property as a measured and controllable parameter. Here, we have systematically determined a broad set of conditions (at 60 V applied potential, elevated temperatures) that allow researchers to fabricate NTAs quickly and simply. By modulating conductivity through variation of bulk electrolyte temperature and the controlled addition of several hydroxy acid species, we achieve consistent accelerated growth up to 10 times faster than traditional methods. We find that regulating the solution conductivity within a desired region (e. g., ∼800–1000 μS cm−1) enabled the fabrication of double-sided NTA layers of around 10 μm and 90 μm NTA in 10 and 180 min, respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere202200081
Issue number7
StatePublished - Apr 11 2022


  • Titanium anodization
  • accelerated growth
  • electrolyte additives
  • electrolyte conductivity
  • nanotube arrays

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Electrochemistry


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