A review of the synthesis of reduced defect density InxGa1−xN for all indium compositions

Evan A. Clinton, Ehsan Vadiee, Chloe A.M. Fabien, Michael W. Moseley, Brendan P. Gunning, W. Alan Doolittle, Alec M. Fischer, Yong O. Wei, Hongen Xie, Fernando Ponce

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


A review of metal rich and nitrogen rich (N-rich), low-temperature grown InxGa1−xN is provided, focusing on two low-temperature approaches that have resulted in non-phase separated InxGa1−xN. The metal modulated epitaxy (MME) and N-rich, low temperature approaches to the reduction of defects in InxGa1−xN are described and are capable of growing InxGa1−xN throughout the miscibility gap. MME films remain smooth at all thicknesses but show device quality material primarily for x < 0.2 and x > 0.6. Low temperature, N-rich grown films show a critical thickness extend well beyond the theoretical values and results in slower relaxation through the 0.2 < x < 0.6 range most interesting for light emitters and solar cells. This reduced defect density results in improved optical emission, but due to increased roughening with increased thickness, low temperature, N-rich films are limited to thin layers. Future thick InxGa1−xN substrates are necessary to increase design freedom, as well as improve optoelectronic device performance. Initial results with films up to 800 nm are shown to display evidence of defect annihilation which could be promising for future thick optoelectronic templates and thick devices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-11
Number of pages9
JournalSolid-State Electronics
StatePublished - Oct 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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