A review of risk factors and prevention strategies for exercise associated hyponatremia

Adam D. Seal, Stavros A. Kavouras

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is defined as a serum sodium concentration under 135 mmol·L−1 during or within 24 h of exercise. Increasing interest in endurance events has led to a higher number of athletes presenting with this potentially life-threatening condition. EAH is largely caused by the overconsumption of hypotonic fluids leading to weight gain during exercise. The primary risk factors include the inappropriate secretion of arginine vasopressin, longer exercise duration, smaller body mass, and to smaller extent ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Accurate tracking of fluid intake and losses to prevent weight gain during exercise, sodium supplementation, and heat acclimatization may help attenuate declines in serum sodium concentration during exercise.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102930
JournalAutonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Cramps
  • Hyponatremia
  • Salt intake

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


Dive into the research topics of 'A review of risk factors and prevention strategies for exercise associated hyponatremia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this