23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability

Kevin A. Bush, Axel F. Palmstrom, Zhengshan Yu, Mathieu Boccard, Rongrong Cheacharoen, Jonathan P. Mailoa, David P. McMeekin, Robert L.Z. Hoye, Colin D. Bailie, Tomas Leijtens, Ian Marius Peters, Maxmillian C. Minichetti, Nicholas Rolston, Rohit Prasanna, Sarah Sofia, Duncan Harwood, Wen Ma, Farhad Moghadam, Henry J. Snaith, Tonio BuonassisiZachary Holman, Stacey F. Bent, Michael D. McGehee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1137 Scopus citations


As the record single-junction efficiencies of perovskite solar cells now rival those of copper indium gallium selenide, cadmium telluride and multicrystalline silicon, they are becoming increasingly attractive for use in tandem solar cells due to their wide, tunable bandgap and solution processability. Previously, perovskite/silicon tandems were limited by significant parasitic absorption and poor environmental stability. Here, we improve the efficiency of monolithic, two-terminal, 1-cm2 perovskite/silicon tandems to 23.6% by combining an infrared-tuned silicon heterojunction bottom cell with the recently developed caesium formamidinium lead halide perovskite. This more-stable perovskite tolerates deposition of a tin oxide buffer layer via atomic layer deposition that prevents shunts, has negligible parasitic absorption, and allows for the sputter deposition of a transparent top electrode. Furthermore, the window layer doubles as a diffusion barrier, increasing the thermal and environmental stability to enable perovskite devices that withstand a 1,000-hour damp heat test at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number17009
JournalNature Energy
Issue number4
StatePublished - Mar 13 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


Dive into the research topics of '23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this