Interpersonal Swearing Dictionary

  • K. Hazel Kwon (Contributor)
  • Anatoliy Gruzd (Contributor)



The dictionary was developed based on the two primary sources: (a) public lists of English swear words shared freely on websites such as, and (b) a custom-built dictionary of swear words and abbreviations (e.g., smfh, stfu, wtf, wth) derived from the manual reviews of over 60,000 Twitter messages by the research team. The inter-coder reliability of the Twitter-derived swear words achieved 92.04% agreement, with kappa alpha = .87.
Date made availableJan 1 2017
PublisherScholars Portal Dataverse

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